Archive for the ‘Mathematics’ category

Evidence From Anatomy

September 13th, 2009

Eye2The eye is an incredibly complex organ that moves 100,000 times in an average day. Numerous muscles and tear ducts are in place to keep the eye constantly moist, protected, and functional. Our eyes process 1.5 million bits of information simultaneously and provide 80% of the sensory stimulation sent to the brain. They receive light images traveling at 186,000 miles per second through the iris, which opens or closes to let in just the right amount of light. These images travel through a lens, made of transparent cells, which focuses them on the retina at the back of the eyeball. The retina covers less than one square inch of surface, yet this square inch contains approximately 137 million light-sensitive receptor  cells. Approximately 130 million are rod cells (designed specifically to see in black and white), and 7 million are cone cells (allowing color vision). Finally, the image is sent at a rate of 300 miles per hour to the brain for processing. How could all of this have come about by some step-by-step, random-chance evolutionary process?

Mankind has designed and patterned the camera after the eye. It is only reasonable to acknowledge that the eye, which is an infinitely more complex instrument, was also designed by intelligence.

The above was quoted from The Human Body: Accident or Design?, p.56-58 as depicted in A Closer Look At The Evidence by Richard & Tina Kleiss.

Ears that hear and eyes that see—the LORD has made them both. (Proverbs 20:12)


Evidence From Astronomy

September 12th, 2009


There are more than 1022 stars in the universe, but each one is unique. No two stars have exactly the same properties. This may sound like guesswork, since we have analyzed very few stars in detail; but the conclusion is a certainty. A star has so many variables that the probability of two identical stars is essentially zero. These variables include the total number of atoms, the exact composition of elements, its size, and its temperature. Some stars show obvious color and brightness differences. Others require spectroscopic study to detect each star’s particular identity or fingerprint.

The Bible states in I Corinthians 15:41 that “star differs from star in splendor.” How could ancient man have known this? It is only logical to conclude that the Creator of the stars chose to tell man to include this in the Bible. In Psalm 147:4 the Bible also says that God “determines the number of stars and calls each by name.” Truly God’s abilities have no limit.

The above document is from Astronomy and the Bible, p.56-57 as quoted in A Closer Look At The Evidence by Richard & Tina Kleiss.

The sun has one kind of splendor, the moon another and the stars another; and star differs from star in splendor. (1 Corinthians 15:41)

Evidence From Mathematics

August 17th, 2009


The simplest conceivable form of life (e.g., bacteria) contains at least 600 protein  molecules. Each of these molecules performs specific functions by fitting into other molecules shaped in exact three-dimensional spacial arrangements. These proteins work like a key fitting into a lock – only a specifically shaped protein will fit. Yet there are multiple trillions of possible combinations of protein molecules * and shapes. How could the exactly required shape find the exactly correct corresponding protein in order to perform the required cellular function? The mathematical probability that the precisely designed molecules needed for the “simplest” bacteria could form by chance arrangement of amino acids (these are the chemicals that link up to form proteins) is far less than 1 in 10450 . Most scientists acknowledge that any probability less than 1 in 10 50 is considered an impossibility. One wonders why this “impossibility” is taught as a “fact of science” to millions of school children each year.

* Editor’s Note: When going to the link on “protein molecules” be sure to scroll down about 1/5 of the way to a box titled “A Deeper Look”.

The above document is from In The Beginning, 7th Ed., p.14 as quoted in A Closer Look At The Evidence by Richard & Tina Kleiss.

“As the heavens are higher than the earth, so are My ways are higher than your ways and My thoughts higher than your thoughts.”   (Isaiah 55:9)


Evidence From Mathematics

August 11th, 2009

simple cell drawingDrawing of a cell membrane from Wikipedia.

At one time living cells were considered no more than empty table tennis balls. As biochemists have learned more about the complexity of life, it has become increasingly apparent that thousands of specific and complex chemicals are required for any form of life to survive. Evolutionist Harold Morowitz estimated the probability for chance formation of even the simplest form of living organism at 1/10340,000,000. By contrast, only 10²º grains of sand could fit within a cubic mile, and 10 billion times more (10³º) would fit inside the entire earth. So the probability of forming a simple cell by chance processes in infinitely less likely than having a blind person select one specifically marked grain of sand out of an entire earth filled with sand.

There is nowhere near enough time nor matter in the entire universe for even the simplest cell to have formed by chance combinations. Even if all the correct chemicals somehow came together in the correct place, you still wouldn’t have life. This is exactly the situation every time a living organism dies. Immediately after death, all the right chemicals exist, in the right proportions, and in the right place – yet the creature is still dead!

Five billion years is nowhere near long enough for evolution to have taken place. In reality, all of eternity would not provide enough time for random processes to form the enormous complexity of life.

This document was taken from Energy Flow in Biology, Academic Press, NY, 1968, p.99 and quoted in A Closer Look At The Evidence, by Richard & Tina Kleiss.

I will proclaim the name of the LORD.  Oh praise the greatness of our God! He is the Rock, his works are perfect, and all His ways are just. . .  (Deuteronomy 32:3,4)

The Golden Ratio

August 2nd, 2009

In the year 1202 the Italian mathematician Leonardo Fibonacci worked out a problem about rabbits having babies and discovered a pattern of numbers: 0, 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, 34, 55, 89, 144,233,377, and so on. Every number in the pattern was the addition of the two that came before it: 0+1= 1, 1+1= 2, 1+2= 3, 2+3= S, 3+5= 8,5+8= 13, 8+13= 21, and so on. We see these Fibonacci numbers showing up over, and over, and over in nature.


If you ignore the zero, and divide a Fibonacci number into the one before it you get: 1, 2, 1.5, 1.67, 1.6, 1.625, 1.615, 1.619, 1.617,1.618,1.617,1.618,1.618, etc. After the first few, the answer lS always close to 1.618. Now you might ask yourself, “So what? What does 1.618 have to do with anything?” Well, as it turns out, that’s a very special number – so special, in fact, that it’s called the “golden ratio“.

The ancient Greeks based a lot of their art and buildings on the golden ratio (often shown as the Greek letter Phi Φ). The length of the Parthenon, for example, is a rectangle 1.618 times as long as it is wide (known as a golden rectangle). They also designed much of their pottery with the same ratio. Now why did they do that? They did it because they believed that this special ratio was much more pleasing to the human eye than any other ratio. Many of the great artists used the golden ratio in their art. For example, Mona Lisa‘s face is 1.618 times as long as it is wide. Beautiful symphonies also have the same golden ratio. The first movement is usually 1.618 times as long as the second one.

So why do we find that number so pleasing to the eye and to the ear? Do we find it beautiful because it copies creation, the work of the Master Artist, God? Could it be that the golden ratio is one of the blueprints God used in His creation? Let’s look at a few of the other ways that the number 1.618 shows up over, and over, and over again throughout the universe.

ΦEach segment in your finger is roughly 1.618 times as long as the next one.

Φ Your forearm is approximately 1.618 times as long as your hand.

Φ People with mouths 1.618 times as wide as their noses, are often considered the most beautiful.

Φ In addition, the distance between their pupils is about 1.618 times as wide as their mouths.

The leaves and stems of some trees are arranged at 137.5 degrees from each other. That angle lets the sun shine on the greatest number of leaves. When you draw that angle inside a circle, you get two pieces. Divide 137.5° into 222.5° and you get … 1.618!

If you make a spiral based on Fibonacci numbers, where every quarter turn is 1.618 times as far from the center as the previous one, you get what is known as a “golden spiral”. Amazingly, most of the spirals found in nature are golden spirals.

The list of golden ratios goes on and on and on. From art and music to nature and science, 1.618 keeps showing up over and over. It is almost as if “Somebody” used that number as a measuring stick for the universe. It just can’t be an accident. Many people call the golden ratio the “divine proportion” because it is clear only God could have done it!

The above document was published by Alpha Omega Institute, Kids Think and Believe, March-April 2006 and authored by Lanny & Marilyn Johnson.